Mediumship: A Quantitative and Qualitative Studywitha Triple-Blind Protocol | Patrizio Tressoldi

Patrizio Tressoldi is an Italian psychologist and consciousness researcher leading the Science of Consciousness Research Group at the Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale of University of Padova, Italy. He has a long-term interest in psi phenomena and began experimentation in the early 2000s, exploring the presentiment response and making notable progress in developing new methodologies. More recently, he has designed novel experiments to investigate psychokinetic influences. He has also reviewed the presentiment and implicit precognition literature.

This study represents an additional contribution to the scientific study of mediumship, its main aim being to identify the source of the information given out by a medium.

In this study, nine mediums produced 38 pairs of results for readings related to 38 deceased individuals chosen by 36 sitters using a triple-blind protocol with no direct interaction with the sitters themselves. In this protocol, the medium was only provided with the deceased’s name by the interviewer, the latter having no further knowledge about the deceased. In each session, the medium was asked to provide information about each deceased person. This information, excluding generic details, was entered into two anonymous lists. The information of these two readings were sent to the research assistant charged with maintaining contact with the sitters. Each sitter was asked to assign a value to each piece of information listed on a four-point Likert scale from ‘totally wrong’ to ‘totally correct’, and to provide a global score for each reading result.

This study provides further evidence that some mediums are able to obtain accurate information about deceased people from only knowing the deceased’s name, and with no interaction with sitters. It also supports the hypothesis that in some cases the sources of the information are the deceased themselves.

Presented at the online PA Symposium “Advances in Mediumship Research” on February 27,2021; program chaired by Helané Wahbeh, Director of Research at IONS. Download the Abstract at

The Parapsychological Association is an international professional organization of scientists and scholars engaged in the study of psi (or ‘psychic’) experiences, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, psychic healing, and precognition. The primary objective of the PA is to achieve a scientific understanding of these experiences.

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Published on May 8, 2021