Netnography’s role in studying contemporary Paganism

#netnography #paganism #pagan

What is netnography, and how can we use it in research? Religious Studies and digital religions. Studying religions online.

Paper delivered at the Ethnography and Qualitative Research Conference 2023 at the University of Trento.


Kozinets’ Netnography

Hine’s Ethnography for the Internet

Cowan’s Cyberhenge: Modern Pagans on the Internet


Canon 90D camera

Canon EF-S 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6


Shure SM7B Microphone

Microphone stand



Cartledge, M. J. 1962- (2023) ‘Empirical Theology as Theological Netnography: Methodological Considerations’, Journal of empirical theology, vol. 35, no. 2, p. 187.

Hine, C. (2007) ‘Connective Ethnography for the Exploration of e-Science’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 618–634 [Online]. DOI: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00341.x.

Kozinets, R. V. (2015) ‘Netnography’, in The International Encyclopedia of Digital Communication and Society, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 1–8 [Online]. DOI: 10.1002/9781118767771.wbiedcs067 (Accessed 29 May 2023).

Murchison, J. M. and Coats, C. D. (2015) ‘Ethnography of Religious Instants: Multi-Sited Ethnography and the Idea of “Third Spaces”’, Religions, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 988–1005 [Online]. DOI: 10.3390/rel6030988.

Rodrigues, D. (2023) ‘How to Study Religion? Notes on Research Methodology in the Context of Latin American Religions’, International Journal of Latin American Religions [Online]. DOI: 10.1007/s41603-022-00188-0 (Accessed 29 May 2023).

00:00 Introduction

00:36 Presentation: Netnography in the study of contemporary Paganism02:13 The aim of the paper

04:43 The structure of the paper

05:21 What is paganism?

06:51 The importance of networking

08:06 What is netnography?

09:56 The advantages, limitations and ethics of netnography

12:05 How to conduct a netnographic research

16:52 The advantages and disadvantages of netnography

20:56 The advantage of an integrated approach

22:53 The survey – description

23:18 The geographical distribution

25:04 Q How often do you use the internet for religious, or spiritual activities?

26:16 Q How often do you participate in online pagan communities?

30:36 Q What online platforms do you use for pagan-related activities?

32:04 Q Does participating in online communities enhance your practice?

33:11 Q Can netnographic research capture the essence of contemporary paganism?

36:02 Thanks and support Angela’s Symposium (twice, sorry!)





or SUPER THANK me in the comments!

FOLLOW ME: Instagram (angela_symposium), Twitter (@angelapuca11), TikTok (Angela’s Symposium).

Music by Erose MusicBand. Check them out!

Published on June 11, 2023